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Social Identity in the Breakfast Club Breakfast Club film contained a wide variety of behavior and stereotypes. Each person had their on personality and taste at the beginning of the film. I believe that communication played the biggest part in the movie. It shows the way that people from totally different backgrounds can communicate and even agree on issues. The various types of communication and behaviors within the film will be discussed. Key terms will be pointed out and highlighted, as well as described in relation to the examples extracted from the film. To begin with the film started out with a communication climate that was both tense and without verbal communication. This was mainly due to the variance in membership constructs of the characters involved. The character's included the brain Brian, Andrew the athlete, the criminal Bender, the princess Claire, and the basket case Allison. There was a great deal of interesting nonverbal communication taking place between these people. Their reactions and responses to each other demonstrated perceptual errors, which would be shown as the story progressed. The gender conflict styles also played a role. The girls both tended to listen, rather than hold the attention of the others. This was especially true in Allison's case, whom never spoke. Allison was introduced in the movie as the basket case. Allison showed that she was obviously insecure, seating herself facing away from the rest of the room (avoidance). She would not speak out. She was non-assertive, when asked what she wanted she would not respond (impervious response). She would only sit and smile to herself. You could categorize her in to the passive aggressive label perfectly. She didn't like herself (low self-esteem), or others. She was both futile and helpless. The only way she displayed her anger was by giving a whimper. She obviously had a lot of pent up feeling, for she reveals a lot later in the movie through self-disclosure. Allison obviously lacked the respect of others, for she had no friends whatsoever prior to her time spent in this detention. She also has nervous ticks, such chewing her nails, and played with her hair. Brian was another case of insecurity. The influence of self-concept was strong with Brian Johnson for he had no sense of self. He could not meet the standards of his desired self and was therefore unhappy with himself as a person.
The power of psychological time in poetry Essay
Poetry is always connected to various time representations. Poets replace real time with different psychological visions and ideas of past or future events. We frequently find ourselves in a situation, when we cannot completely understand the time implications of a specific poem. Thomas Hardy and T. S. Eliot were well known for their poetic skills in representing various dimensions of time. In their works, time has become a symbol, and their â€œinstinctive mode as writers was figurative, not analytic; their most habitual method was symbolism, not argument.
â€ In Hardyâ€™s â€œWessex Heightsâ€, and Eliotâ€™s â€œRhapsody on a Windy Nightâ€, time acquires new meaning. It is no longer the clock measurement of our actions; it is a psychological dimension which creates the virtual space in which we live. Our memories signify the power of psychological time; in their poems, Eliot and Hardy underline the significance and power of psychological time and oppose it to the clock or seasonal time, under the impact of which we traditionally live. â€œWessex Heightsâ€ and Hardyâ€™s meaning of psychological time
Hardyâ€™s â€œWessex Heightsâ€ is invariably linked to the way Hardy interprets the meaning of philosophical and psychological notions of time and space. Evidently, temporal subject is central to â€œWessex Heightsâ€, and the poet creates a conjunction of numerous elements, which ultimately form what we call â€œpsychological timeâ€. There are some heights in Wessex, shaped as if by a kindly hand For thinking, dreaming, dying on, and at crises when I stand, Say, on Ingpen Beacon eastward, or on Wylls-Neck westwardly,
I seem where I was before my birth, and after death may be. (Hardy 1989, 23). This trope becomes the beginning of a readerâ€™s journey to Hardyâ€™s representation of psychological time and the continuity of human emotions. It is not surprising that the poet uses the exact geographical names, and seems to determine the exact geographical location for the reader. This â€œgeographicalâ€ character of the poem is initially deceptive. Moreover, Hardy uses these names to oppose the reality to psychology of time, and geography serves the instrument of such opposition.
â€œIt is not surprising that â€œWessex Heightsâ€ uses the title of a specific locality only to emphasise dislocation, moving the speaker in and out of abstracted spaces that have, as it turns out, little connection to physical place. â€ The first stanza actually becomes the start of the readerâ€™s journey into the depth of Hardyâ€™s psychological time. The dislocation, about which Richards writes, is one of the most prominent characteristics to emphasise the power of psychological time, which makes memories and feelings eternal. The first stanza smoothly moves the reader into the clearer representations of the psychological time.
It seems that the poet was preparing us to what we would later see after we move to virtual lowlands: â€œDown there I seem to be false to myself, my simple self that was, / And is not now, and I see him watching, wondering what crass cause / Can have merged him into such a strange continuator s thisâ€¦â€ The reader seems to appear in the center of an action, where the past plays with the present, and where one sees oneâ€™s self as a separate being. Hardy evidently opposes reality of time to its psychology, underlining the effects which psychological time may cause on a person.
In order to strengthen the effect, Hardy presents the second stanza in a more structured metrical form than the first one. As a result, â€œthe past self, the chrysalis, encloses the present subject in the same paradoxical way that rhyme enfolds Hardyâ€™s chaotic language, so that these structures play against other as the poem progresses. â€ Hardy uses the notion of locality, and exact geographical names to emphasise the mixture of the geographical and the aesthetical. In his work, geography loses its meaning when the poet speaks about ghosts in the third stanza: â€œThere is a ghost at Yellâ€™ham Bottom chiding loud at the fall of the night.
â€ The ghosts represent the circulation of the psychological time. In distinction from the real clock or seasonal time, in psychological time a person has an opportunity to return to the past memories. In this aspect psychological time is evidently stronger than the real one. As the reader retreats from these ghosts in the first stanza, he meets them again in the third passage; â€œthe conventional ghosts of the lowlands repeat their presence in a form that revises their past forms.
This repetition constitutes human temporality in a particular way: time is movement toward a future which will be, but never yet is, the perfected assumption of the past. â€ The psychological time, in which the reader appears when reading â€œWessex Heightsâ€ creates favourable conditions for separating the self and analyzing it through the prism of the past events. In Hardyâ€™s vision, this separation and the absence of a psychological line between the past and the present creates an incredible emotional atmosphere, in which any person can find a key to oneself. â€œRhapsody on a Windy Nightâ€: Eliot and Bergson
The first impression from reading Eliotâ€™s â€œRhapsody on a Windy Nightâ€ is in that the poet creates a kind of â€œcoherent imaginative vision of time. â€ Eliot has brilliantly incorporated Bergsonâ€™s understanding of time into his poetic work . As with Hardyâ€™s â€œWessex Heightsâ€, Eliot underlines the impossibility to measure time in traditional clock or seasonal terms. The poet clearly keeps to the idea of time being more psychological than seasonal. As a result, the reader acquires additional opportunities to return to the past, and to analyze the future actions through the prism of the past events.
The major difference between â€œWessex Heightsâ€ and â€œRhapsody on a Windy Nightâ€ is in that Hardy creates a vision of unlimited time through the use of geographical names and localities. In his turn, Eliot emphasises the opposition between the clock time and psychological time. His poem takes the reader away from traditional clock measurements which do not give any space for the analysis of the self and the continuity of time: Twelve oâ€™clock. Along the reaches of the street Held in a lunar synthesis, Whispering lunar incantations Dissolve the floors of memory And all its clear relations Its divisions and precisions,
Every street lamp that I pass Beats like a fatalistic drumâ€¦ (Eliot 1991, 16) Eliot starts each stanza in a similar way: the passing of the clock time symbolises its irrelevance and insignificance towards the relations, divisions, and precisions of the psychological time. It is not a secret, that Eliotâ€™s creative work was dramatically influenced by the works of Henri Bergson in terms of time concept. In his works, Bergson distinguished the two different types of time: real and mathematical. In Bergsonâ€™s view, real time was indivisible and continuous, while mathematical time could be measured.
In Eliotâ€™s poem, the reader faces the challenge of distinguishing real time from mathematical time measurements. Real time in Eliotâ€™s view stands in the form of indivisible psychological continuum, which is broken by mathematical measurements in the form of clock time at certain regular intervals. There is a persistent impression that Eliotâ€™s â€œRhapsodyâ€¦â€ continues the logical time line of Hardyâ€™s â€œWessex Heightsâ€ by mixing past with present, and recognising the insignificance of â€œmathematicalâ€ measurable time: â€œThe past exists in the present, which contains the future.
The concrete and ever present instance of duration is life, for each of us living in his own time. â€ Eliot speaks about memories, which do not change with time. He speaks of time as psychological notion, which cannot be measured. â€œHalf-past three. / The lamp sputtered, / The lamp muttered in the dark. / The lamp hummed: / â€œRegard the moonâ€¦â€ The moon, and not the clock is the sign of the reality of time, but even the moon can lose memory: â€œThe moon has lost her memory. â€ Through the whole poem, Eliot seems to seek the means of time measurability: he tries to use lamps, moon, and clock to divide his time into separate passages.
Yet, these measures only confirm the continuity of psychological time, and the continuity of memories which actually constitute this psychological time. In his â€œRhapsodyâ€¦â€, Eliot â€œadds the influence of time and its inescapable nature. Memory and the past bring into focus relationships and lack of personal fulfillment. â€ As psychological time cannot be measured, it serves a measure in itself: the measure of Eliotâ€™s passion, emotiveness, and the memory which is the key to eternity. Conclusion Poetry is inherently separated from any traditional measurements of time.
In their works, Hardy and Eliot were trying to create a border between the clock (seasonal) and psychological time. Both were striving to mix past with future, and to show the futility of traditional time measurements against the power of memories and psychological time. Both have incorporated either geographical names or traditional measures of time to emphasise their irrelevance towards peopleâ€™s emotions. Bergson says that â€œreality has extension as well as duration. However, space is not a void or vacuum which is filled by reality. Things are not in space, space is in things.
â€ As a result, psychological time is not an objective reality: it is extremely subjective and stems from the personal memories and interpretations. Subjective notions cannot be measured, and both poets were trying to deliver this essence to the reader. Ultimately, after reading the two poems, the reader finds oneself in a new environment, which breaks traditional limits of time and produces a completely new vision of the self.
Bergson, H. The Creative Mind: An Introduction to Metaphysics. New York: Kensington Publishing Group, 1946. Eliot, T. S. â€œRhapsody on a Windy Night. â€ In Collected Poems, 1909-1962, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991, p. 16. Hardy, Thomas. â€œWessex Heights. â€ In Thomas Hardy: Wessex Heights, ed. N. Philip, London: Bloomsbury Pub Ltd, 1989. , p. 23. Maxwell, D. E. S. The Poetry of T. S. Eliot. Routledge Kegan, 1960. Richards, J. â€œThe History of Error: Hardyâ€™s Critics and the Self Unseen. â€ Victorian Poetry 45 (2007): 24-29. Siebenschuh, William R. â€œHardy and the Imagery of Place. â€ Studies in English Literature 39 (1999): 101-103. Thomson, E. T. S. Eliot: The Metaphysical Perspective. Southern Illinois University Press, 1963.
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